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Martin Luther and Visual Culture  

Elke Anna Werner

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the mind of Martin Luther, images were first and foremost adiaphora and, as such, neither good nor bad. However, Luther spoke out firmly against the worship of images, as did other ... More

Martin Luther and the Arts: Music, Poetry, and Hymns  

Johannes Schilling

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
From the beginning of the Reformation, Martin Luther had a significant impact on church and society through his contributions to sacred music. His intention to spread the gospel among the ... More

Martin Luther as a Polemicist  

Thomas Kaufmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther was criticized for his polemics, particularly by his humanist contemporaries, and his writing did not in fact live up to the ideal of modestia (moderation). However, personal ... More

Martin Luther, Augustinianism, and Augustine  

Phillip Anderas

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Though it is well-known that Martin Luther stood in some connection to the late medieval theologians of his Order and that he intensively studied Augustine’s works in the mid-1510s, the ... More

Martin Luther, Bible Translation, and the German Language  

Anja Lobenstein-Reichmann

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In the history of the German language, hardly any other author’s linguistic work is as closely associated with the German language as Martin Luther’s. From the start, Luther as a ... More

Martin Luther, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and Political Theologies  

Michael P. DeJonge

Contemporary political theology often defines itself against Lutheran social ethics, which is portrayed as politically disengaged and overly deferential to state power. At the same time, ... More

Martin Luther, History, and Its Meaning  

Curtis L. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In relation to Martin Luther, the topic of “history and its meaning” is necessarily imprecise. It can refer to his personal understanding of history and its meaning. It can refer to the ... More

Martin Luther in 19th-Century Theology  

Zachary Purvis

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Across the theology of the 19th century, Martin Luther came to represent not only the Reformation but also what it meant to be Protestant—and, more than occasionally, what it meant to be ... More

Martin Luther in Britain and Anglican Theology  

Mark D. Chapman

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Luther’s impact on Anglicanism, especially on the Church in England but also in Scotland, is difficult to gauge. The English and Scottish Reformations moved in ways that were more ... More

Martin Luther in Central Europe: Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia  

L'ubomír Batka

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
The reception of Luther in central Europe has been influenced by the Counter-Reformation and re-Catholicization more than anywhere else. Protestantism was so widespread in this area ... More

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